Rural areas have been also characterized by both unemployment rates and underemployment rates continuously above those in major urban economies. Rural mother face unique barriers or distinctive to employment. Single mother are found to receive lower wages in non metropolitan areas Such rural-urban differences in wages and employment may simply due to differences in the composition of rural and urban populations. For example lower Job experience levels are associated with lower earnings, and average experience rates and levels of education to be lower in rural areas.
There is some evidence that the cost of living in urban area is much ore higher than in rural areas and wages also depends on the cost of living. However its been proven in different researches that the lower female earnings rates are partly due to the way that rural labor market disadvantage female. Female in rural are less likely than men to find adequate employment and more likely to become employed in low wage or low hour Jobs. Rural female are largely confined to lower status occupation in which experience counts more than formal qualification.
Labor force hardship contributes to the economic vulnerability of female, especially among female head of households with children. This is an analysis of income generated by both genders in different industry, but before knowing that we need to know that what the importance of income is. Uneducated and Unskilled female serving mostly as unpaid family helpers remain denied of their rightful place in society. The need to provide greater education opportunities to girls has accelerated as a result of convergence of numerous contributing factors.
In Pakistan, the female’s access to property, education, employment etc. Remains considerably lower compared to men’s. The social and cultural context of Pakistani society is predominantly patriarchal. Female have a low percentage of participation in society outside of the family This paper examine the rural-urban wage gap among female in Pakistan to consider whether observed differences are attributable to differences in observed individual demographic characteristics differences in hours worked,differences in the operation of rural labor markets IR differences in preferences. . Population In July 2012 the total population of Pakistan sis’s. Million out of which males are 50. 8% and 49. 2% are the females. Following are the age classification of female. Now if we see the percentage of a woman in Pakistan out of which only 16% of female re economically active (source Wisped ). Percentage of male and female are quite same. Pakistan cannot progress as far as we can understand the importance of the woman is development and provide them equal opportunities so that they can proper and Pakistan prospers! 3. Comparison of Income of Both Gender At National Level in Rural/Urban If we take the income levels of both gender at national level and do the comparative analysis of rural and urban area then we would figure it out that people of urban area are making more money than rural area. The graph shows that the, the overall income of both genders is comparative low Han the urban area, because we are taking the average of both areas. 3. 2 Comparison Of Income of Male at a National Level in Rural/Urban As we all know that the Pakistan is an agric country, and overall 24. 67% of the males are working in this sector and 34. 8% of the males of rural area is working in this sector. Maximum percentage of Males of urban is working as trader/retailer and their percentage is 25% which is the maximum. In agriculture sector, rural males are much more involved in this sector. Where as the total earning of urban male is much higher than the rural areas. In Urban areas males are more into business/trade. 3. 3 Comparison Of Income of Females at a National Level in Rural/Urban Females of rural area help their husbands in the field of agriculture, and their percentage is approximately 23% which is the maximum.
Most of the females are unpaid worker that means whatever their husband income is their input is involved in the practicality of work, but the income is not shared. Ata national level maximum female of urban areas are house wives and are responsible for Kids and taking care of the house. A lot of female are also involved in UN-informed industry which is not ported. Statistically most of urban female are involved in manufacturing. Comparison Of Income of Males & Females 4. Punjab As we know that the society which we are living in is a male dominated society where the females are almost totally neglected and the major contribution in household income is by males. We know that Punjab is a very huge province by population and by its contribution in GAP which is around 47 percent annually. In Punjab the average household income of male is around 77 percent all the businesses are dominated by the males and major house hold income is generated by the three main heads which are agriculture, forestry, and fishing, whole sale and related trade and social and personal services.
In Punjab most of the people are living in rural areas and engaged with agriculture business. In our society as mentioned above that that is a male dominated society the males are highly respected and are considered the head of the family and without their permission nothing could be done. Even in some areas without their permission the females could not dare to go out of their houses. This is what we have in our culture which should be fixed to have a healthy and competitive society.
Income of females in Punjab is slightly higher as compared to other provinces because Punjab is the most developed and with a better literacy rate as compared to other provinces. In Punjab there are less cultural and traditional restrictions than other provinces and people here are more towards work Jobs and are generating a healthy income contributing to the GAP of the country. Females are engaged in Jobs in multinationals firms. Banks and other industries are paying decent salaries. Only some restrictions are in the rural areas of Punjab where there are some traditional restrictions regarding female going out. 2 Kinds In Kinds the contribution of males in household income is even higher than the Punjab. In Kinds it is almost 87 percent which is higher than the other provinces of the Pakistan. It is the second in ranking for the contribution to the GAP and the major head through which the males are generating the household income are agriculture forestry and fishing, whole sale and related trade and social and personal services. Kinds has a culture of feudalism where the people who are in power are controlling each and everything there and they treat the folks like servants.
They hire them as a abort in return they Just give them food items and grains which remain uncounted in the GAP. Karachi is the main hub of the business in Kinds as well as in Pakistan where the people are mostly related with import and export business. Kinds is place divided into two divisions like in one part there is Karachi and Headband which are the most developed in this region and obviously Karachi is known as the business hub of Females work in firms and stock exchange Banks and are engaged in other business earning a healthy amount of income which contributes a lot to the GAP of the economy of Pakistan.
But on the other hand there are such regions and districts where female are treated like nothing where they cannot go outside and cannot expose their abilities to the outer world. Comparison Of Income of Males & Females in Kinds Figure 3. 2 5. 3 Cyber Patten Chukka The culture of KIP is very rigid in traditions and its rituals and almost a dominated by the males and religious customs are strictly followed and even in some areas it is not allowed to the female to work outside from their houses.
The major heads of the household income of males are agriculture forestry and fishing, construction, whole ale and trade and social and personal services. Most of the people are living in the rural areas and are related with the agricultural business. Income of female in KIP is very low because first of all there is a cultural restriction on female. The pupation families do not allow their females and young girls to work in the outer world. So the income level of female is very low.
Females in KIP are usually engaged in agriculture ( mazurka) system where they work with their men in a very restricted kind of environment working under the feudal mostly. In return they get wheat rice and there stuff like that instead of cash and this does not contribute in the GAP of an economy. Other drawback is the literacy rate in KIP . Let is very low as compared to other provinces but now with the arrival of new Government it is growing because this present Government has more emphasis on education than any other province. There is lot of numbers of unreported incomes usually earned from working in houses of other high class families.
Comparison Of Income of Males & Females In KIP Figurer. 3 5. 4 Appalachians Balloonists is the most backward province of Pakistan and hence has the lowest income level as compared to other provinces. There are many Government issues regarding terrorism and feudal wars going on so there is no development in this particular region. Only Equate is the major city where only male dominate the society and work. Female workers are next to none in Appalachians and hence contributing very low to the GAP of the country. Major issues are the cultural and traditional issues and poor illiteracy rate.
In Appalachians the feudal system is very active as compare to Kinds and other provinces of the Pakistan and its most undeveloped and poorest province of the Pakistan. The war and terror is going on there is only one plopped city which is Equate and the Godard which is in development process. The people are very poor and are mostly controlled by the feudal who are in power. Comparison Of Income of Males & Females In Appalachians Figurer. 4 The total percentage of income of males in Appalachians is 98% where as the percentage of women in Appalachians is next to nothing about 4%.
Men are engaged in works like mining and quarrying , electricity gas and water, wholesale and related trade , finance and real estate and other undefined activities. Package of men working in mining and quarrying is about 35% and females is 2% . Men’s percentage in electricity gas and water is 3% and no female is indulged in this work. Percentage of men in sector of wholesale and related trade is about 18% and no women is engaged in this regard. Finance CE and real estate are dominated by men but it is only about 2% only in Equate and Godard. Percentage of men and women in other activities which speculatively. Re unreported or undefined are 18% and 2% respectively. Income Distribution Within The Industry Agriculture Pakistan is a agrarian country. Agriculture is major economic source in all over the world. Agriculture has major contribution in each country development. Developing nations are more dependent on the agriculture base economy. Many Asian and south American countries produce the major food for all over the world. China and America has a lot of agriculture resources. It is the need of the time to enhance the production while using the new technology in agriculture.
The countries which are using the new trends and methods are growing very fast in this field (Aka, 2001). Female have great worth in agriculture settings. In each country female play their vital role in this productive sector. But female are paid very less as compare to men. This can be gender discrimination. This dilemma that female are less paid in farming that could not appreciate female participation in agriculture department any more. And usually female help their husband in this field. Female are also marginalia in farming likewise other sectors.
The provincial disaggregating shows that of total farm households, 62 percent are in Punjab, 26 percent in Kinds, and 12 percent in KIP. Farm households constitute nearly 41 percent of households in Punjab and 46 percent in Kinds. This proportion is 57 percent in KIP. Farm households can be divided into three categories: owners, who cultivate owned land; tenants, who rent-in and for cultivation; and sharecroppers, who cultivate land under some contract in which the tenant has rights to use the land and provides a share of the output to the landlord.
The landlord may or may not provide a share of the inputs to the tenant. The majority of households are owners (66 percent), followed by sharecroppers (23 percent), and tenants (1 1 percent). The provincial disaggregating indicates that most households in Punjab and KIP are owners (77 percent and 75 percent respectively), while only 31 percent are owners in Kinds. Most farm households in Kinds are sharecroppers (67 percent). Mining And Quarrying
Through 1980 development of mining was discouraged by the absence of venture capital and the limited demand for many minerals from domestic industries, the slope development of the mining was due in part to the remoteness of the areas where most minerals are found, which adds greatly to the cost of exploration, production, and transportation. Moreover, some of the areas have a poor reputation for law and order. By the early sass, mining was a little importance to the economy, despite the presence of fairly extensive mineral resource. Foreign companies were invited for concessions and bids for mineral extraction.
These small mines and quarries are part of the burgeoning informal or ‘unrecognized’ sector of third world economies. Female play a lot of role in this field, but as it is an informed sector there is no data available that what percentage of female contribution, And it it is considered to be an informal activity Miners belong to some of the poorest and most disenfranchised communities in the district. Most are illiterate and few are aware of their basic legal rights. Nearly half of all miners are daily wage laborers and receive no health allowances or other benefits from their employers.
Miners work in hazardous conditions with the most basic equipment, and when accidents occur there are no facilities to provide first aid at most mine sites. Working conditions are deplorable in many other respects. Nor have safe storage facilities been constructed for blasting materials and explosives, exposing workers to even greater danger. Besides suffering from a host of occupational diseases, many workers endure severe psychological stress from the nature of their work, poor wages and rising inflation. Few miners are aware that quarrying and mining activities lead to environmental pollution.
Because of these reasons female are quite less in this sector. Manufacturing The manufacturing sector of any country bears significant importance. Globalization, and in particular, enhanced exports are generally believed to benefit developing countries. And with Pakistanis exports concentrated largely in textile and semi- manufactures, the country needs to strengthen this sector. Since the foreign- currency dominated export prices for developing countries are largely determined in the international market, any downward slide in them exerts a downward slide in foreign-exchange export earnings.
It is therefore imperative, for a country like Pakistan, to prevent the decline in manufacturing output, not only to sustain but also to increase the export share and hence to gain external competitiveness in this sector. Construction The percentage of male and female employed in construction in Pakistan according to 2010-11 data is about 9. 83%. Male contribution in construction sector is 9. 72% and female contribution is 0. 11%. In urban areas total construction contribution is 8. 15%. In the urban areas male contribution is about 8. 06% and female contribution is 0. 09% . In rural areas total contribution in construction is 10. 2% in which male contribute to about 10. 51% and female contribution is 0. 12%. The male contribution is dominant because in Pakistan female are considered to b weaker gender and male are given the priority. Transport & Storage : The percentage of male and female in transport and storage in Pakistan is about 6. 30%. Where male have 6. 14% and female have 0. 17% occupancy. In urban areas male occupancy in transportation and storage is 8. 73% and female is 0. 22% . In rural areas percentage of male in this occupation is 4. 0% and female is 0. 14% . Wholesale & Related Trade: In Pakistan total occupancy in this section is about 15. 1%. Where male have 14. 62% and female have 0. 39% . In urban areas of Pakistan male percentage is about 25,06% and female is 0. 49% . In rural areas male percentage is 9. 66% and female percentage is 0. 35%. Finance and real estate: The financial institutions are considered as the back bone for the economy and play a very significant role in the development of the economy. It provides many services in order to boost up the economic growth in a very smooth and stable way. As we all now that the Pakistan has a male dominating society and almost all the businesses are dominated by the men and there are a few contributions of female.
According to the Pakistan Bureau of statistics and the World Bank the status of female in Pakistan is lowest among the world. According to the PBS the overall contribution of the men and female in real estate and financial institution is around 1. 36 percent in the country and 1. 3 percent is dominated by the males and 0. 05 percent by the females. If we further look at the provincial level in Punjab the total contribution is 0. 99 percent and male contribution is 0. 5 percent and female contribution is 0. 04 percent. In Kinds the total contribution is 2. 5 percent and male dominated portion is 2. 28 percent and female contribution is 0. 08 percent. The Kip’s the overall contribution in financial and real estate sector is 1. 37 percent and male domination is 1. 34 and female is 0. 03 percent and in the last in Appalachians the overall contribution is 0. 88 percent and male domination is 0. 71 and female domination is 0. 17 percent. So after this little analysis we can conclude that the female contribution in finance and real estate sector is very low and major portion of this sector is occupied by the male.
The one major reason of this is the education, the literacy rate in female in Pakistan is very low and that’s why their contribution is low. Social and Personal Services: The service sector is growing rapidly as compare to the manufacturing sector especially in the developing countries because there is more requirements of the financial services and product offering services. The services sector in Pakistan is growing with a constant rate and the overall contribution of services sector in economy is 30. 16 percent and male domination is 22. 29 and female contribution is 7. And if we further break it down at provincial level in Punjab the total contribution is 18. 59 and male contribution is 13. 28 and female contribution is 5. 30 percent. The Kind’s contribution is 19. 57 percent and male contribution is 15. 42 and female is 4. 15 percent and in KIP it is 22. 34 and male domination is 18. 14 and female contribution is 4. 20 percent. In Appalachians the overall contribution is 18. 27 and male contribution is 16. 78 and female contribution is 1. 49 percent. So by analyzing this data we can say that the contribution of female in the services sector also low as in the other sectors.
There are different reasons and problems which need to be addressed in order to provide a smooth way to the female to contribute effectively in the economy. Conclusion: In Pakistan, the income of females is comparatively less than the men because of the norms, value and culture. This was true! But now the scenario is completely changed now female are working in different sector and the data of HISS 2011-12 Most of the female belong to uninformed industry where they are making money and that is not reported and they do not have any tax records. This is also one of the reason that female income is very low as compared to male.